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Glossary

Casts (CAST)

Urinary casts mainly consist of Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein (THP). About 50 mg of liquid THP is excreted every day. Therefore, it is normal to find THP in urine.
Hyaline casts (Hy. CAST) are the most common types of casts in urine. They are cylindrical and appear almost transparent. Casts are a result of solidification of THP mucoprotein in the lumen of the kidney tubules. Hyaline casts can be found in urine due to dehydration, fever or vigorous exercise.
Pathological casts (Path. CAST) contain inclusions. They develop when particles – such as red blood cells or tubular epithelial cells – are present during the solidification process of THP. Particles adhere to the fibrillar protein network and get surrounded by it. These casts appear in urine when pathological processes take place in the kidney. Examples: Granular casts, cellular casts, waxy casts.

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