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Various possibilities for screening have become established to obtain information on a urinary tract infection as quickly and as reliably as possible, and also to reduce the number of negative cultures. The fluorescence flow cytometry technology makes it possible to report the majority of negative samples immediately to the doctor and to thus save this part of the culture workload.
The determination of the ‘erythrocyte sedimentation rate’ (ESR) is a commonly performed laboratory test with a traditional role. In this article, the mechanism of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation is described, the standardised procedure is explained and we provide an update on the clinical interpretation of the ESR.
The term ‘NRBC’ – ‘nucleated red blood cells’ – refers to precursor cells of the red blood cell lineage which still contain a nucleus. In healthy adults and older children, NRBC can only be found in blood-building bone marrow where they mature. Their appearance in peripheral blood points to extramedullary erythropoiesis or disruption of the blood - bone marrow barrier. Both possible scenarios can only be found in the course of a severe disease.
Direct detection of blood doping is relatively time-consuming and cost intensive. Some of the banned substances, such as recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), can hardly be distinguished from natural, endogenous hormones. This SEED describes how it is nevertheless possible to indirectly detect EPO-like doping with a modern haematology analyser like the XN-Series and reticulocyte parameters. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has played a leading role in the development of the Athlete Biological Passport for monitoring blood parameters such as RET#, RET%, HGB or HCT to ensure fairness among athletes.
The capability to count blood cells beyond the classical 5-part differential with high reliability is a challenge for modern haematology analysers. Sysmex offers the immature granulocyte count (IG) optionally on the XE-series and XT-series analysers. It is a standard diagnostic parameter on the XT-4000i, the XE-5000 and on the new XN-series as well.
Thrombocytopenia occurs in 30% of all neonates admitted to intensive care. Young, immature platelets containing RNA, measured as “immature platelet fraction” (IPF) on Sysmex analyzers, can help to assess platelet production. Thus, they allow conclusions on both the etiology and the likely course of thrombocytopenia in neonates.
This SEED article does not only cover erythropoiesis, manual and analyser counting methods but as well the clinical relevance of the parameters deriving from the RET measurement channel. It also sheds some light on the reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) parameter and explains its use in a diagnostic plot model called ‘Thomas plot’.
Thrombocytopenia is a disorder in which there is an abnormally low amount of platelets. It can be life threatening and its detection and precise count is extremely important. The immature platelet fraction (IPF parameter) measures young, reticulated platelets in peripheral Blood, revealing if the bone marrow is producing or not.